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Fw-300 #ya-qn-sort h2 /* Breadcrumb */ #ya-question-breadcrumb #ya-question-breadcrumb i #ya-question-breadcrumb a #bc .ya-q-full-text, .ya-q-text #ya-question-detail h1 html[lang="zh-Hant-TW"] .ya-q-full-text, html[lang="zh-Hant-TW"] .ya-q-text, html[lang="zh-Hant-HK"] .ya-q-full-text, html[lang="zh-Hant-HK"] .ya-q-text html[lang="zh-Hant-TW"] #ya-question-detail h1, html[lang="zh-Hant-HK"] #ya-question-detail h1 #Stencil . Bdend-1g /* Trending Now */ /* Center Rail */ #ya-center-rail .profile-banner-default .ya-ba-title #Stencil . Bgc-lgr #ya-best-answer, #ya-qpage-msg, #ya-question-detail, li.ya-other-answer .tupwrap .comment-text /* Right Rail */ #Stencil . Bxsh-003-prpl #yai-q-answer, #ya-trending, #ya-related-questions h2. Fw-300 .qstn-title #ya-trending-questions-show-more, #ya-related-questions-show-more #ya-trending-questions-more, #ya-related-questions-more /* DMROS */ .MS-222 continues to be a valuable tool for aquatic animal keepers.
mong the foremost practical (and indeed ethical) concerns of a competent aquarist is the mitigation of stress inflicted upon the animals under his or her care.
It has been repeatedly demonstrated that both chronic and acute stress can have a significant impact on animal health.
Yet, being that they are not always readily apparent or immediately manifested, these adverse effects are all too often not ascribed to the events (e.g., wrongful handling) that caused them.
A truly capable (and indeed conscientious) aquarist can not only take the steps necessary to provide relief to a distressed animal, but can-and should-be able to prevent stressful events from occurring in the first place.
Generally, chronic stress prevention requires little more than good planning and common sense (employing adequate shelter, appropriate light levels, sensible stocking density/compatibility, etc.).
Acute stress prevention, on the other hand, requires that comparatively exacting measures be taken; here, the proper application of anesthetic agents is an indispensable part of any comprehensive animal health program.
Oftentimes, exposure to MS-222 will itself induce a stress response; therefore, the first (and, arguably, most important) step is to determine that its use in a particular procedure is justifiable (i.e., that the procedure could otherwise inflict undue pain upon the animal is characterized by incapacitation and a total loss of reactivity to stimuli.
There remains some disagreement as to what, if anything, constitutes pain in fishes; generally speaking, pain is here characterized as a pronounced behavioral response (e.g., thrashing or increased opercular movement) and/or physiological response (e.g., altered corticosteroid/catecholamine, lactic acid, or plasma glucose levels) to some injurious/irritating stimulus acting upon the body.
Light sedation (low treatment dose) is most appropriately applied prior to minimal handling (gavage feeding, noninvasive examination, etc.) that will likely not result in significant pain; moderate sedation (moderate treatment dose) is most appropriately applied prior to rougher handling (fin clips, gill biopsies, etc.) that will likely result in low-level pain; anesthesia (high treatment dose) is most appropriately applied prior to heavy handling (internal examination, surgery, etc.) that will likely result in high-level pain, particularly where it may reduce the risk of injury posed by a struggling animal to itself or its keeper; euthanasia (overdose) is most appropriately applied where an animal's condition has deteriorated such that it is likely suffering from considerable pain, it is unfit to recover fully from a necessary medical procedure, and/or its death is clearly immanent.
If it is determined that MS-222 (or any other anesthetic agent) will be administered, the animal should be purged (i.e., not fed) for 12-24 hours before a (non-emergency) procedure as to reduce the risk of regurgitation.
Ideally, the animal will be repeatedly reassessed until the time of the scheduled procedure.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating