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Calcium signaling plays an essential role in plant cell physiology, and chaperone-mediated protein folding directly regulates plant programmed cell death.

The Arabidopsis thaliana protein At BAG5 (Bcl-2-associated athanogene 5) is unique in that it contains both a BAG domain capable of binding Hsc70 (Heat shock cognate protein 70) and a characteristic IQ motif that is specific for Ca-saturated Ca M and Hsc70 bind At BAG5 with negative cooperativity.

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Collectively, we propose that the Ca M/At BAG5/Hsc70 signaling complex plays an important role in regulating plant senescence.

Senescence occurs at the final stage of leaf development in plants and is a critical process for the recycling of nutrients from senescent leaves to other parts of the plant.

Leaf senescence is regulated by multiple environmental factors including stresses such as drought, nutrient deficiency and temperature, and endogenous factors including aging and phytohormone levels.

The process of senescence begins with chloroplast dismantling followed by catabolism of macromolecules such as chlorophyll, proteins and nucleic acids and, subsequently, the degeneration of mitochondria.

Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs at the late stage of natural and dark-induced leaf senescence, together with the release of cytochrome c (cyt c) into the cytosol, which results from mitochondrial oxidative burst and mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss.

Mitochondria serve as an important calcium store in plant cells.

Studies have demonstrated that calcium participates in plant senescence by regulating the generation of nitric oxide (NO) because plant NO synthase (NOS) activity is regulated by Ca are primarily caused by uptake from extracellular circumstances and/or release from intracellular calcium stores and to a lesser extent by efflux into the extracellular space and/or retrieval into calcium stores.

The specific regulation mechanism of the mitochondrial calcium signaling pathway in the process of plant senescence has not been well characterized.

In plants, calcium signaling is a complicated biological process.

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