Elucidating the structure of poly dopamine

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are responsible for many debilitating side effects and are a major cause of death following drug therapy.It is now clear that a significant portion of these ADRs as well as therapeutic failures are caused by genetic polymorphism and genetically based inter-individual differences in drug absorption, disposition, excretion or metabolism.

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Additionally, some tests may help provide information on how well a specific treatment may work for an individual.

Cytochrome P450 enzymes are a group of enzymes that account for approximately 75 percent of drug metabolism in the human body.

Enzymes encoded by the P450 genes (eg, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 etc.) are found primarily in the liver.

The action of the P450 enzymes affects the blood levels of many drugs.

Genotyping for cytochrome P450 has been proposed for possible use in medical management of drug therapies including, but not limited to, antidepressants, antiepileptic, antipsychotics, barbituates, clopidogrel, opioid analgesics, proton pump inhibitors, tamoxifen or warfarin.

Recent advances in molecular biology have improved the understanding of genetic factors underlying many ADRs.

Until recently, investigations in this field have generally centered on gene coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes.

Inactivating mutations have been found in gene coding for enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, which is important in the hepatic metabolism of many drugs.

Individuals with a lack of functional activity in these enzymes should be treated with very low doses of drugs metabolized by the same enzyme to avoid excessive drug levels and thus toxic effects.

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