Carbon 14 dating assumes that the carbon dioxide Kerala boy and girl sex chat in
as “an increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere,” either by “human industry and agriculture” or by natural causes like the Earth has “experienced numerous” times “through its history.” * Some writers use the phrases “global warming” and “climate change” to mean temperature changes strictly caused by human activity.   Other writers use adjectives such as “man-made” and “anthropogenic” to distinguish between human and non-human causes.  (“Anthropogenic” means “of human origin,” and “AGW” stands for “anthropogenic global warming.”) * Just Facts’ Standards of Credibility require the use of “language that is precise and unambiguous.” Hence, when human causes are stated or implied, this research uses terms like “man-made” and “human-induced.” * The greenhouse effect is a warming effect caused by certain gases that retain heat from sunlight. Without such gases, the average surface temperature of the Earth would be below freezing, and as explained by the , “life, as we know it, would not exist.” The global warming debate is centered upon whether added greenhouse gases released by human activity will overheat the Earth and cause harmful effects. * Human activities currently release about 37 billion metric tons of CO2 per year, which equates to about 5% of natural CO2 emissions.Natural processes absorb the equivalent of all natural emissions plus about 57% of man-made emissions, leaving an additional 16 billion metric tons of CO2 in the atmosphere each year. † In permafrost regions, perennial snow accumulations trap air bubbles that leave records of past airborne CO2 concentrations,   and because regional CO2 concentrations vary by less than 10 parts per million over the Earth, these local records are globally representative.  * Instruments located on satellites can measure certain properties of oxygen that vary with temperature.Data from these instruments is used to calculate the average temperatures of different layers of the Earth’s atmosphere.  * The lowermost layer of the atmosphere, which is called the “lower troposphere,” ranges from ground level to about five miles (8 km) high.  According to satellite data correlated and adjusted by the National Space Science and Technology Center at the University of Alabama Huntsville, the average temperature of the lower troposphere increased by 0.60ºF (0.33ºC) between the 1980s and 2000s, mostly from 1997 to 2010: * Sources of uncertainty in satellite-derived temperatures involve variations in satellite orbits, variations in measuring instruments, and variations in the calculations used to translate raw data into temperatures.  * According to temperature measurements taken near the Earth’s surface that are correlated and adjusted by NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, the Earth’s average temperature warmed by 1.5ºF (0.8ºC) between the 1880s and 2000s, mostly during 1907–19–2014: * According to temperature measurements taken near the Earth’s surface that are correlated and adjusted by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia in the U.
One of these was a series of buoys, each containing thermometers located ten feet above the water and at one foot below the water.
The study found that water temperatures increased on average by 0.23ºF (0.13ºC) per decade between 19, while air temperatures cooled by 0.02 to 0.09ºF (0.01 to 0.06ºC) per decade during the same period. examined the locations of 1,007 of the 1,221 monitoring stations used to determine average surface temperature changes across the continental United States.
The paper found that 92% of these stations are positioned in sites that can cause errors of 1.8ºF (1ºC) or more.  For example, some stations are located over asphalt (making them hotter at certain times), and others are located in partial shade (making them cooler at certain times).
By comparing data from poorly positioned stations with other stations that are properly positioned, the study determined that the temperature irregularities in the poorly positioned stations cancel one another so that their average temperature trends are “statistically indistinguishable” from the properly positioned stations.
As of July 2015, no similar study has been conducted on a global basis. * From 1979–2014, the three temperate datasets posted above differed from one another by an annual average of 0.13ºF (0.07ºC).
The largest gap between any of the datasets in any year was 0.38ºF (0.21ºC), and the smallest gap was 0ºF/C: * To reconstruct global average temperatures in the era before instrumental measurements were made on a global scale, scientists use proxies that respond to changes in climate, such as the widths of tree rings and certain elements of the geological record, to estimate temperature variations in the past.  * The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific body established in 1988 by the United Nations and World Meteorological Organization.
It is the “leading international body for the assessment of climate change,” * The first IPCC report (1990) contains the following graph of average global temperature changes over the past 1,000 years based upon proxies.
It shows a “Medieval warm period” that was warmer than the present era and a “Little Ice Age” that was cooler.
The report states that: some of the global warming since 1850 could be a recovery from the Little Ice Age rather than a direct result of human activities.
So it is important to recognize that natural variations of climate are appreciable and will modulate any future changes induced by man.
* The second IPCC report (1995) states that “data prior to 1400 are too sparse to allow the reliable estimation of global mean temperature” and shows a graph of proxy-derived temperatures for Earth’s Northern Hemisphere from 1400 onward with different details but a similar overall trend to the first report. * The third IPCC report (2001) states that the latest proxy studies indicate “the conventional terms of ‘Little Ice Age’ and ‘Medieval Warm Period’ appear to have limited utility in describing …Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating